A doctor can help you figure out nephritic syndrome causes by examining your urine and taking a blood test. The presence of protein in urine and reduced levels of proteins in blood are both signs of the disease. Proteins in the blood absorb water, and without them, water builds up in body tissues, leading to swellings. This is most often seen around the eyes, ankles, and feet. Another symptom is a frothy urine.
Some medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), can cause nephritic syndrome. Some antibiotics, too, can cause the disease. Additionally, certain infections can worsen this condition. Because the glomeruli are unable to filter blood, it can lead to a loss of proteins, which can increase the risk of blood clots. When albumin levels drop, the liver will produce more cholesterol and triglycerides to compensate.
In some cases, nephritic syndrome causes will manifest in acute glomerulonephritis with crescents in the kidney biopsy. However, other nephritic syndromes can smolder for months or even years without producing noticeable changes in renal function. To determine the cause of nephritic syndrome, a multidisciplinary team should conduct evaluation tests and administer supportive therapy.
Treatment for nephritic syndrome depends on the underlying cause. It may involve medications and diet changes to treat the underlying cause. In children, steroids may help relieve swelling and reduce blood pressure. Dialysis may also include the use of diuretics, ACE inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers. If FSGS is the cause, the doctor may prescribe immunosuppressive drugs or anticoagulants.